If you are a regular user of your computer and if you experience power outages it is highly recommended to monitor the disk for health. The alarm bell for this will start when you have to run
fsck for checking the consistency of the disk.
smartmontools is the package offered by Debian for checking the health of the disks.
The console program is called smartctl which will run the tests for you.
smartctl -a /dev/sda
This will give you basic information of your disk and if any tests have been performed before.
smartctl -t long /dev/sda
In order to perform a long test ( 100 minutes+ ) you can use the test type
-t long. This will check the disk in detail and I would recommend running this overnight.